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General guidelines for the installation of the tiles in stone tiles.

First of all it is necessary to evaluate the surface on which the material will be placed: it must be level, free from cracks, from irregularities and damp, clean from any possible residue, in particular oil and grease. It must be solid and well-seasoned, at least of one week per centimetre of thickness of course (in order to avoid possible downfalls or future damages).

Two types of glue are used: those of cement (normally used when it becomes necessary to significantly raise or level off the substratum) and resins.

 

Cement glues: The mortar is made using only sand of river or of quarry, having a particle size not higher than 0.5 mm, mixed with gray or white cement in proportion to a part with 4 of sand and water. A particular attention should be due to the dosage of water: an excess can facilitate the separation of the tile. In this case, the mortar should be sprinkled on the surface by a cement spraying in such a way as to absorb the excess of free water. (It is absolutely not recommended the use of sea sand and of any kind of paste). The laying happens by spreading the mortar out on an area proportioned to a limited number of tiles to be laid.
On size larger than 40x40 cm they are supported on the side to be stuck down with a compound of water and cement to a paste-like consistency.

 

Adhesives resins: We proceed with the preparation of the adhesive carefully following times and methods recommended by the manufacturers. In general it is recommended adhesives so-called "quick-setting" that are applied by spreading down a sufficient quantity of adhesive following a semi-circular motion with a toothed spatula, verifying the good adhesion between the adhesive and the background and paying attention, before laying the tile, that it does not start to dry. For the adherence it is applied a pressure on the whole surface of it, with the help of a rubber hammer. If the tile has a size bigger than 40x40 cm, or it is concave on the side to be stuck down (eg. handmade terracotta) it is also necessary to spread a thin layer of glue on the entire back of the tile itself in order to ensure the maximum adhesion. Any excess of adhesive should be immediately removed with a damp cloth or with a sponge before it starts to harden.

For the installation of green marbles and of some of them red is recommended only the use of epoxy or polyurethane adhesive. Marbles and granites can be laid with the traditional mortar too.

 

Expansion joints:

In the buildings of reinforced concrete, the expansion joints of the floor should be performed by considering the coefficient of linear thermal dilation of the material with a minimum width of at least 5 mm. Along the perimeter of the floor and around structural elements such as columns and pillars must be provided for an open joint of at least 10 mm, that interests both support and the binder and the tiles. The joints of the floor could cover areas varying from 4x4 m to a maximum of 7x7 m according to the type of the product, the size of the tile and of the specific conditions of application. In special cases of dark-coloured materials, exposed to the direct light, we recommend more expansion joints.

On masonry buildings is convenient to provide an expansion joint on all gaps that connect the various rooms and along the perimeter of them.

These joints can also be filled/sealed with specific products available on the market.

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The stucco finish of joints:

Specific products: special ready-mixed powder which blended with water turn into a creamy mixture, easy to be worked. Generally it consists of hydraulic binders, inerts with a selected size, synthetic resins, besides special additives to colour, to fluidify, to check the withdrawal, etc. .... They are indicated for joints with a thickness over than 2 mm.

Grout: cement and water. (excesses of water and the use of sand are to be avoided in order to not scratch the surfaces), generally it is used for joints of thickness less than 2 mm.

 

The excess of the sealing should be removed when it is still damp with a sponge or a soft cloth. Never use acids in order to not damage the shiny surface of tiles.

 

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